Based on the analysis of the existing problems and shortcomings in the safety inspection and management of cutter suction dredgers, the following measures are proposed to improve the safety management level of cutter suction dredgers.
- Conduct soil survey and determine construction equipment
Before construction, the survey of dredged soil should be carried out, the performance index of soil should be determined and the classification of soil should be carried out, so as to correctly select the type of dredger, cutter equipment and reasonably arrange the construction process, which is not only the main basis for the production efficiency and construction cost accounting of ships, but also plays an important role in the safety management of construction. Soil can be mainly divided into organic soil and peat, silt, clay, silty soil, sand and gravel soil etc, and the degree of cutting difficulty is quite different. If unsuitable ship type or cutter equipment is selected, it will cause damage to the dredging equipment, resulting in a ship damage accident. In the maintenance and cleaning process of dredging equipment such as cutter, it is easy to produce safety accidents such as object strike and mechanical injury.
- Optimize the dispatch plan and coordinate with the business operation
Construction production almost runs through the life cycle of the cutter suction dredger, so the construction environment, process method and dispatching process play a key role in the cutter suction dredgers’ equipment and management. The construction span of waterway engineering is relatively large, and ship dispatch is frequent. In the process of ship dispatch, the loss of machinery and equipment and safety accidents often occur. Therefore, the principle of minimizing the number of dispatches and the mileage of dispatches should be taken as the principle to form a regional construction situation, which requires enterprises to take overall consideration of the use and dispatch of ships in their operational layout. Frequent dispatch will raise construction costs, and even have a negative impact on the crew’s psychology.
- Strengthen supervision and inspection, improve reward and punishment mechanism
Through on-site inspection and supervision and the introduction of reward and punishment mechanism, an objective evaluation is made on the operation efficiency of ship safety management system, the wrong practices of ship owners are corrected in time, and certain spirit and material rewards are given to ships that operate effectively, otherwise appropriate penalties. Specifically, we can start from the following aspects.
- Strengthen the random inspection of various emergency drills of the ship, and pay attention to the diversification of forms and contents, so as to avoid “going through the motions”.Through training, supervision and inspection, the crew’s emergency response ability will be improved, and the technical support will be provided for ensuring the safety of ships, aircraft and people and preventing sea pollution.
- Strengthen the supervision and management of equipment maintenance,urge ships to take responsibility for people according to the requirements of relevant documents in the system to ensure the safe operation of daily equipment and the availability of emergency equipment.
- Standard boarding inspection.When inspecting, we should not only check all kinds of records, but also check the operation of the equipment and instruments on board and the actual operation ability of the crew.
- Improve the actual operation level of shore-based personnel.Shore-based personnel are required to participate in various professional training to improve their business level and service quality.
- Optimize the management of the crew
Ship is a “man-machine” management system. Any management process is realized by people, and the human factor is the key to ship safety management. Therefore, efforts should be made in crew management to form a new management model, to motivate the power of crew self-management and to form a virtuous circle.
- Optimize the employment system for crew, There are two main types of crewemployment, one is “formal workers” and the other is “social workers”. If there are more “formal workers” in the crew, the pressure on the operating costs of the enterprise is high; and too many “social workers” become the factors of strong mobility of crew. Therefore, key positions such as senior crew should be “formal workers” to stabilize the crew. Sailors, mechanics and other non-critical positions can use “social workers”, the implementation of corrections, job transfers and so on.
- Optimize the salary distribution system.On the basis of improving the employment system, we should optimize the salary distribution system. Vertically, there should be a reasonable “salary gap” between key and non-key positions to promote internal competition and achieve a virtuous circle. Horizontally, the salary of crew in key positions should be slightly higher than the average level of the same positions in the industry, which is conducive to attracting crew with high quality and skills.
- Strengthenthe training of All crew members should be trained regularly, which is the most effective way to improve their professional quality. The training can be carried out by relying on the staff school within the enterprise, or it can be entrusted to the third party. Through typical case education, safe operation education and continuous training, it can effectively improve the crew’s ability to respond to complex situations, prevent and solve defects.
- Establish ship-to-shore communication system to enhance shore-based support
The establishment of a ship-shore communication system can help shore-based personnel to understand the ship construction situation and various management operations timely, thus assisting ships in the management of key equipment, maintenance and replacement of spare parts and technical information support. At the same time, it can automatically remind the crew or shore-based personnel of the various systems that need to be implemented regularly, effectively reduce the pressure of the crew, and help the crew to devote their main energy to construction production and safety management, as well as the maintenance, operation of key equipment and emergency disposal.